They use the same stimuli as non-nidicolous species to identify hosts, with body heat and odors often being the main factors. Tick-borne diseases are becoming an increasing problem in the United States. Since 2009, more than 200,000 cases have been reported.  In the United States, Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne disease in the country. The nymphs become engorged and drop off the host in the fall to molt and become adults. , Most ixodid ticks require three hosts, and their lifecycles typically span three years. Other Fleas That Are A Public Health Risk. The female tick drops off its host, often, in the fall and lays thousands of eggs. In North America, the role of ticks as vectors of two bacterial diseases, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, is well documented. Females will mate on their third host. Ticks can be disposed of by flushing them down the toilet, placing them in a container of soapy water or alcohol, or sticking them to tape that can then be folded over and thrown away.  Opossums also are net destroyers of ticks, killing around ninety percent of the ticks that attempt to feed on them. Transcriptomic analysis … The third family is Nuttalliellidae, named for the bacteriologist George Nuttall.  The Tropical Bont tick wreaks havoc on livestock and wildlife in Africa, the Caribbean, and several other countries through the spread of disease, specifically heartwater disease. , Ticks are implicated in the transmission of a number of infections caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.  Often, egg laying and mating occurs detached from the host in a safe environment. Ticks belong to three major families, the Ixodidae or hard ticks, the Argasidae or soft ticks, and Nuttalliellidae, a monotypic family. In addition to having a hard shield on their dorsal surfaces, known as the scutum, hard ticks have a beak-like structure at the front containing the mouthparts, whereas soft ticks have their mouthparts on the underside of their bodies. Because of their hematophagous (ingesting blood) diets, ticks act as vectors of many serious diseases that affect humans and other animals.  The larvae hatch in the winter and emerge in the spring. It lays its eggs into ticks;[a] the hatching wasps kill their hosts. Both male and female adults feed on blood, and they mate off the host. , Topical tick medicines may be toxic to animals and humans. Many tick species have extended their ranges as a result of the movements of people, domesticated pets, and livestock. , Most ticks are inornate and appear to be brown or reddish brown in color.  Other tick-borne diseases include Lyme disease and Q fever, Colorado tick fever, Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever, tularemia, tick-borne relapsing fever, babesiosis, ehrlichiosis, Bourbon virus, and tick-borne meningoencephalitis, as well as bovine anaplasmosis and the Heartland virus. When a tick bites, it may pick up diseases from the host it’s living on. Tick saliva facilitates tick feeding and infection of the host. The most common of these nutritional endosymbionts belong to the Coxiella and Francisella bacterial genera. They remain in place until they engorge and are ready to molt; this process may take days or weeks. , Order of arachnids in the arthropod phylum, This article is about parasitic arachnids. During the summer the larvae become engorged and drop off the first host to molt and become nymphs, this often occurs during the fall. , Ticks can withstand temperatures just above 0 °F (−18 °C) for more than two hours and can survive temperatures in the 20–29 °F (−7 – −2 °C) range for at least two weeks. As a larva, for example, a tick might feed on a mouse carrying a disease.  To keep from dehydrating, ticks hide in humid spots on the forest floor or absorb water from subsaturated air by secreting hygroscopic fluid produced by the salivary glands onto the external mouthparts and then reingesting the water-enriched fluid.  A common misconception about ticks is they jump onto their host or they fall from trees, however, they are incapable of flying or jumping. On this site, you can find information about tick biology, descriptions of the most common tick-borne illnesses, advice regarding the most effective methods of tick-bite prevention, step-by-step instructions for how to remove a tick (hint: it does NOT involve matches! Unlike the Ixodidae that have no fixed dwelling place except on the host, they live in sand, in crevices near animal dens or nests, or in human dwellings, where they come out nightly to attack roosting birds or emerge when they detect carbon dioxide in the breath of their hosts. , With the possible exception of widespread DDT use in the Soviet Union, attempts to limit the population or distribution of disease-causing ticks have been quite unsuccessful.  The hard protective scutellum, a characteristic of this family, covers nearly the whole dorsal surface in males, but is restricted to a small, shield-like structure behind the capitulum in females and nymphs. , Nuttalliellidae (1 species, southern Africa).  The phylogeny of the Ixodida within the Acari is shown in the cladogram, based on a 2014 maximum parsimony study of amino acid sequences of 12 mitochondrial proteins. Most ticks of public health importance undergo the three-host life cycle, whereby the tick leaves the host after the larval and nymphal stages. Tick definition is - a light rhythmic audible tap or beat; also : a series of such ticks. Although biology is the study of life, even biologists don't agree on what 'life' actually is.  The tick Deinocroton draculi has been found with dinosaur feathers preserved in Cretaceous Burmese amber from 99 million years ago. Ticks that complete their life cycle in this manner are called two-host ticks, like Hyalomma anatolicum excavatum. Fossilized ticks have been discovered from the Late Cretaceous onwards, most commonly in amber. There is little to nothing known about the lifecycle and feeding habits of N. namaqua but it is speculated this species of tick has multiple different hosts. They are obligate hematophages, and require blood to survive and move from one stage of life to another. The hypostome acts as stabilizer and helps to anchor the tick's mouthparts to the host. With increasing participation in outdoor activities such as wilderness hikes, more people and their dogs may find themselves exposed to ticks. The eggs hatch during winter, the following spring the larvae emerge and attach to their first host. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes …  Their experimental elimination typically results in decreased tick survival, molting, fecundity and egg viability, as well as in physical abnormalities, which all are fully restored with an oral supplement of B vitamins. Ixodidae ticks have three different life cycles.  They have no scutum, and the capitulum (mouth and feeding parts) is concealed beneath the body. Ticks appear to have derived from the Late Cretaceous period (146 to 66 million years ago), with most of the evolution and dispersal occurring during the Tertiary (65 to 5 million years ago). Readers should not consider the report or any part of it to be guidance or instruction regarding the diagnosis, care, or treatment of tick-borne diseases or to supersede in any way existing guidance.  rDNA analysis suggests that the Ixodidae are a clade, but that the Argasidae may be paraphyletic. Eggs laid in the environment hatch into larvae, which immediately seek out a host in which to attach and feed. Their cephalothorax and abdomen are completely fused. In the absence of segmentation, the positioning of the eyes, limbs, and gonopore on the idiosoma provide the only locational guidance. , A habitat preferred by ticks is the interface where a lawn meets the forest, or more generally, the ecotone, which is unmaintained transitional edge habitat between woodlands and open areas. Although there are hundreds of species of ticks found throughout the world, fewer than 60 are known to bite and transmit disease to humans.  While adult ticks can be removed with fine-tipped tweezers or proprietary tick removal tools then disinfecting the wound, there is growing consensus that ticks should be killed in-situ and frozen with either a custom spray or medical wart remover and left to fall out to avoid anaphalactic/allergic reactions. , The lifecycle of a two-host tick often spans two years. tick bites and methods to suppress the local tick population or prevalence of pathogen infection in the ticks. Migrating birds carry ticks with them on through their migrations; a study of migratory birds passing through Egypt discovered more than half the bird species examined were carrying ticks. Many tick species, particularly Ixodidae, lie in wait in a position known as "questing".  During fall the pregnant female tick will drop off her second host and lay her eggs.  The genome sequencing of Coxiella and Francisella endosymbionts confirmed that they consistently produce three B vitamin types, biotin (vitamin B7), riboflavin (B2) and folate (B9). Information and opinions in this report do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the working group, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, or any other component of the federal government.  When an ixodid attaches to a host the bite is typically painless and generally goes unnoticed. , This supports the results of a study from the northeastern United States, in which the incidence of Lyme borreliosis was negatively correlated with the density of red fox, possibly because foxes decrease the density of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), the most important reservoir-competent host for Borrelia burgdorferi.  Tropical bont ticks transmit the heartwater, which can be particularly devastating in cattle. The adult female argasid tick can lay a few hundred to over a thousand eggs over the course of her lifetime. "Evolution of hematophagy in ticks: common origins for blood coagulation and platelet aggregation inhibitors from soft ticks of the genus Ornithodoros", "Microtomography of the Baltic amber tick Ixodes succineus reveals affinities with the modern Asian disease vector Ixodes ovatus", "Ticks parasitised feathered dinosaurs as revealed by Cretaceous amber assemblages", "Phylogeny of hard- and soft-tick taxa (Acari: Ixodida) based on mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences", "The complete mitochondrial genome of the scab mite Psoroptes cuniculi (Arthropoda: Arachnida) provides insights into Acari phylogeny", "How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks", "Infrared light detection by the haller's organ of adult american dog ticks, Dermacentor variabilis (Ixodida: Ixodidae)", "Long Lost Relative of Ticks Pops Up Again", "Stuffed in a vacuum and bombarded by electrons, a tick waves hello", "UC study: Hungry ticks work harder to find you", "Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex", "Ticks are even tougher and nastier than you thought", "Life cycle of Hard Ticks that Spread Disease", "First Mesozoic Record of a Parasitiform Mite: a Larval Argasid Tick in Cretaceous Amber (Acari: Ixodida: Argasidae)", 10.1603/0013-8746(2001)094[0010:FMROAP]2.0.CO;2, "From bug to drug—tick saliva could be key to treating heart disease", "Microbial community structure reveals instability of nutritional symbiosis during the evolutionary radiation of Amblyomma ticks", "Tissue localization of Coxiella-like endosymbionts in three European tick species through fluorescence in situ hybridization", "Tick-Bacteria Mutualism Depends on B Vitamin Synthesis Pathways", "A Coxiella mutualist symbiont is essential to the development of Rhipicephalus microplus", "Rhipicephalus sanguineus Is Required for Physiological Processes During Ontogeny", "A Coxiella-like endosymbiont is a potential vitamin source for the Lone Star tick", "The IS1111 insertion sequence used for detection of Coxiella burnetii is widespread in Coxiella-like endosymbionts of ticks", "Ticks infesting amphibians and reptiles in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil", "tropical bont tick - Amblyomma variegatum", "Taking The Battle Against Lyme Disease Ticks To The Backyard", "Ticks (Ixodidae) on birds migrating from Europe and Asia to Africa 1959-61", "Nuttalliella namaqua: a living fossil and closest relative to the ancestral tick lineage: implications for the evolution of blood-feeding in ticks", "Flinders Island spotted fever rickettsioses caused by "marmionii" strain of Rickettsia honei, Eastern Australia", "Tick-Borne Zoonoses in the United States: Persistent and Emerging Threats to Human Health", "All about ticks: why it's so important to remove a tick", Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Catalyst: Tick allergy – ABC TV Science", "Tweeze vs freeze: Here's the lowdown on how to get rid of a tick", "TIARA - Tick Induced Allergies Research and Awareness", "Pesticides may get rid of ticks, but at what cost? This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. Define tick. After they feed the larvae drop and molt into their first nymphal instars, then the nymph seeks out and feeds on its second host, often this is the same as the first host, within an hour. In the Egyptian migratory bird study, over 20 strains of pathogenic viruses were detected within the tick sample from autumn . (7)Institute of Parasitology, Biology Center, Czech Academy of Sciences, Budweis, Czech Republic. Ticks are important parasites of large wild and domestic animals and are also significant as carriers of serious diseases. Adult ticks are approximately 3 to 5 mm in length depending on age, sex, species, and "fullness". , Tick saliva contains about 1,500 to 3,000 proteins, depending on the tick species. , Argasid ticks, unlike ixodid ticks, may go through up to seven nymphal stages (instars), requiring a meal of blood each time. Micrographs of the wasp laying eggs into a tick, and the hole by which the young wasps emerge from the tick's dead body, are available in Plantard et al 2012. This includes five levels of containment, viz., storage vials within humidified desiccators, within environmental chambers, within a tick suite, within a BSL4 laboratory. , Ticks find their hosts by detecting an animals' breath and body odors, sensing body heat, moisture, or vibrations. Precautions such as glove boxes, sticky pads, Vaseline barriers, safety suits, gloves, sticky tape, silicone vacuum grease, sticky trap paste, and micro mesh are used to safely contain ticks and prevent them from escaping. This sometimes makes earthquakes.. Faulting occurs when shear stress on a rock overcomes the forces which hold it together. The deer tick, also called the black-legged tick, is the first tick species to have its genome sequenced, the researchers said. , Bifenthrin and permethrin, both pyrethroids, are sometimes used as tick-control measures, although a downside is that they are carcinogenic and can attack the nervous systems of other species besides ticks. , Other ticks, mainly the Argasidae, are nidicolous, finding hosts in their nests, burrows, or caves. 1. any of several plants of the genus Bidens having yellow flowers and prickly fruits that cling to fur and clothing 2. the seed of bur marigolds Biology of Ticks 2nd Edition PDF In humans, the diseases caused by these agents include Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Colorado Tick Fever, tick-borne encephalitis, and many others. At 144 pages it contains a fully illustrated glossary and detailed accounts of the biology of these ticks. Minus Tick: Designates a trade that occurs at a lower price than the immediately preceding trade.  Many of them feed primarily on birds, though some Ornithodoros species, for example, feed on small mammals. Ticks represent a successful group of parasitic arthropods that are more closely related to mites, spiders, and scorpions than to insects. They can survive in a near vacuum for as long as half an hour. The majority of tick species belong to the two families: Ixodidae (hard ticks) and Argasidae (soft ticks).  These intracellular symbiotic microorganisms are specifically associated with ticks and use transovarial transmission to ensure their persistence. More importantly, ticks act as a disease vector and behave as the primary hosts of many different pathogens such as spirochaetes. The eyes are on the sides of the body, the spiracles open between legs 3 and 4, and males and females only differ in the structure of the genital pore.  The spinose ear tick has a worldwide distribution, the young feed inside the ears of cattle and various wildlife. Occasionally, the tick harbors more than one type of pathogen, making diagnosis of the infection more difficult. Ticks are external parasites, living by feeding on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians.  In the nymphal and adult stages, ticks have eight legs, each of which has seven segments and is tipped with a pair of claws. The following spring the nymphs emerge and seek out another host, often a small rodent. Other distinguishing characteristics include the position of the stigmata, the lack of setae, the strongly corrugated integument, and the form of the fenestrated plates. Nuttalliella namaqua is found in southern Africa ranging from Tanzania to Namibia and South Africa.  The oldest discovered tick fossil was an argasid bird tick from Cretaceous New Jersey amber. ticks Small, eight-legged, blood-sucking ectoparasites of the family Ixodoidea. Gene expression analysis of tick salivary glands and other tissues involved in host-pathogen interactions has revealed a wide range of bioactive tick proteins. n. 1. , Mites and nematodes feed on ticks, which are also a minor nutritional resource for birds. Therefore, one tick management strategy is to remove leaf litter, brush, and weeds at the edge of the woods.  The gnathosoma is a feeding structure with mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood; it is the front of the head and contains neither the brain nor the eyes. It is estimated ticks originated during the Late Cretaceous period, approximately 120 MYA, the earliest tick fossil in Ne… Some ticks secrete a toxin in … https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ticks, Heartland virus was first identified in 2009 when two Missouri farmers who had been bitten by, (3) evaluated 136 patients, and they reported that the rates of complications after the removal of, Dog owners are being encouraged to be on the lookout for, Recent years of warmer and wetter winters (Beasts from the East aside) have led to a boom in the population of, Dictionary, Encyclopedia and Thesaurus - The Free Dictionary, the webmaster's page for free fun content, 'Tick Kits' available for Kane County residents, How to Get the Tick Out: Speed is more important than technique when removing a tick, but it helps to know which tool works best and how to use it, EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY ON TICK INFESTATION IN INDIGENOUS AND CROSS BREED CATTLE IN HYDERABAD PAKISTAN, Tick in Both External Auditory Canals: An Extremely Rare Case Report, Good weather means more ticks for our pets - so let us help you, Dog illnesses caused by ticks are on the rise - here's how to stop your pet getting dangerous diseases, Tips for avoiding ticks and removing ticks from dogs as Lyme disease spreading bugs are on the rise; Ticks carry a nasty bite which can spread Lyme Disease, an illness which causes lameness and fatigue in dogs, An Ongoing War With Ticks: The best ways to keep your dog safe from these disease-carrying insects, ticarcillin disodium and clavulanate potassium, tick-borne encephalitis (Central European subtype), tick-borne encephalitis (Eastern subtype), Tickoo Institute of Emerging Technologies. , Ticks can transmit an array of infectious diseases that affect humans and other animals. A light, sharp, clicking sound made repeatedly by a machine, such as a clock. Spanning two volumes, the book examines the systematics, biology, structure, ecological adaptations, evolution, genomics and the molecular processes … Ticks locate potential hosts by sensing odor, body heat, moisture, and/or vibrations in the environment.. Once engorged, they drop off the host and find a safe area in the natural environment in which to molt into adults, this typically occurs during the winter. Along with mites, they constitute the subclass Acari. The parasitoid chalcid wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri has been investigated for its potential to control tick populations. , All three tick families ticks have four lifecycle stages: egg, larva, nymph, and adult.. Ticks are prominent parasites and competent vectors of pathogens that affect both humans and animals. Fed larvae molt into unfed nymphs that remain on the host. The range of the problem has been expanding with the range of the tick. Some species drop off the host to molt in a safe place, whereas others remain on the same host and only drop off once they are ready to lay their eggs. However, some products have been withdrawn, while others are known to cause adverse reactions. Researchers are studying these evasins with the goal of developing drugs to neutralise the chemokines that cause myocarditis, heart attack, and stroke. Once attached, they feed and mate.  As they are required for tick life cycle, these obligate endosymbionts are present in all individuals of the tick species they infect, at least at early stages of development since they may be secondarily lost in males during nymphal development. The Argasidae contain about 200 species; the genera accepted as of 2010[update] are Antricola, Argas, Nothoaspis, Ornithodoros, and Otobius. See more. The flea that is the most significant risk to human health worldwide is the Oriental rat flea, Xenopyslla cheopis.This flea is a parasite of rats in the genus Rattus, but also feeds readily on humans and is a highly efficient vector of plague. The three hosts are not always the same species, but may be the same species, or even the same individual, depending on host availability for the tick. , Some species, notably the Australian paralysis tick, are also intrinsically venomous and can cause tick paralysis.  Ticks, mites, and their relatives compose the arachnid subclass Acari. The winter tick Dermacentor albipictus and the cattle tick Boophilus microplus are examples of one-host ticks. Ticks that follow this life cycle are called one-host ticks. , The Ixodidae contain over 700 species of hard ticks with a scutum or hard shield, which the Argasidae lack. Soft ticks possess a leathery cuticle as well. Proceedings of the 7th International Ticks and Tick-borne Pathogens (TTP7) Conference Zaragosa, Spain, August 28th-September 2nd, 2011 Edited by José de la Fuente , Agustín Estrada-Peña June 2012 Adults have ovoid/pear-shaped bodies (idiosomas) which become engorged with blood when they feed, and eight legs.  During droughts, they can endure dehydration without feeding for as long as eighteen weeks, however, ticks with limited energy reserves may succumb to desiccation after thirty-six weeks.  This behavior evolved independently within the separate tick families as well, with differing host-tick interactions driving the evolutionary change. Ticks need just one of these blood meals between each life stage—egg, larva, nymph, and adult (see The Life Cycle of a Tick). A study in the Netherlands found that the number of larval ticks on bank voles and wood mice was lower at sites with significant red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and stone marten (Martes foina) activity. To accommodate this expansion, cell division takes place to facilitate enlargement of the cuticle. Electronic address: [email protected]  Tick’s genomes have evolved large repertoires of genes related to this nutritional challenge, but they themselves cannot synthesize the essential vitamins that are lacking in blood meal. Although no species is primarily a human parasite, some occasionally attack humans. , Larval ticks hatch with six legs, acquiring the other two after a blood meal and molting into the nymph stage. The legs are sometimes ornamented and usually bear sensory or tactile hairs.  The tagmata typical of other Chelicerata have developed into the gnathosoma (head), which is retractable and contains the mouthparts, and idiosoma (body)- which contains the legs, digestive tract, and reproductive organs. Download (14Mb) The file above is optimized for internet distribution. However, some species are ornate and have distinctive white patterns on the scutum. The infective agents can be present not only in the adult tick, but also in the eggs produced plentifully by the females.  In addition to being used for locomotion, the tarsus of leg I contains a unique sensory structure, Haller's organ, which can detect odors and chemicals emanating from the host, as well as sensing changes in temperature and air currents. Tick, (suborder Ixodida), any of about 825 species of invertebrates in the order Parasitiformes (subclass Acari). tick synonyms, tick pronunciation, tick translation, English dictionary definition of tick. Previous Next 1 of 10 Tick species guide.  Tick parasitism is also widely distributed among host taxa, including marsupial and placental mammals, birds, reptiles (snakes, iguanas, and lizards), and amphibians. Fleas, ticks, and mites are all examples of parasitic insects that can affect humans and other animals. "Now that we've cracked the tick's code, we can begin to design strategies to control ticks, to understand how they transmit disease and to interfere with that process," she said. Newly hatched larvae attach to a host in order to obtain a blood meal.  Professor Sheryl van Nunen, whose research in 2007 identified tick-induced mammalian meat allergy, has famously said "tweezers are tick squeezers", referring to the tick toxins squeezed into people by attempting to remove ticks with tweezers. , Ticks are ectoparasites and consume blood to satisfy all of their nutritional requirements. According to these studies, certain features of a given microclimate – such as sandy soil, hardwood trees, rivers, and the presence of deer – were determined to be good predictors of dense tick populations. Ticks are vectors of a wide range of disease agents worldwide, including viruses, bacteria, and protozoa.  The eggs hatch and the larvae feed on a nearby host for anywhere from a few hours to several days, this depends on the species of tick. They remain on the host then develop into nymphs. , Another natural form of control for ticks is the guineafowl, a bird species that consumes mass quantities of ticks. , For an ecosystem to support ticks, it must satisfy two requirements; the population density of host species in the area must be great enough and it must be humid enough ticks to remain hydrated. Depending on the species, Ixodids can either possess a one-host lifecycle, two-host lifecycle, or three-host lifecycle. There are 850 known species of ticks, and they are found around the world. The ventral side of the idiosoma bears sclerites, and the gonopore is located between the fourth pair of legs. In some species an adult female may lay eggs after each feeding. 2. In one-host ticks the tick remains on the host through the larval, nymphal, and adult stages, only to leave the host to lay eggs. Ticks are arthropods of the arachnid order Ixodida (/ix-AWD-də-dah/). A pattern of small, circular depressions expose where muscles are attached to the interior of the integument. Ticks that carry zoonotic pathogens often tend to have a wide host range. While scientists have proposed hundreds … Tick definition, a slight, sharp, recurring click, tap, or beat, as of a clock. , Not all ticks in an infective area are infected with transmittable pathogens and both attachment of the tick and a long feeding session are necessary for transmission of these diseases to take place. The brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) is the most widespread tick in the world and a well-recognized vector of many pathogens affecting dogs and occasionally humans. Eggs can become infected with pathogens inside a female tick's ovaries, in which case the larval ticks are infectious immediately at hatching, before feeding on their first host. Upon receiving an olfactory stimulus or other environmental indication, they crawl or run across the intervening surface. Ticks belonging to the Ixodidae family undergo either a one-host, two-host, or three-host lifestyle. The following spring the adult ticks emerge and seek out a larger host, often a large mammal such as cattle or even humans. They hold the first pair of legs outstretched, waiting to grasp and climb on to any passing host. The eyes are close to the sides of the scutum and the large spiracles are located just behind the coxae of the fourth pair of legs. Adult ticks are approximately 3 to 5 mm in length depending on age, sex, species, and "fullness". Female adults then engorge on blood and prepare to drop off to lay her eggs on the ground, while males feed very little and remain on the host in order to continue mating with other females. It comprises a single species, Nuttalliella namaqua, and is a monotypic taxon.
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